An English family opens their "care package" filled with goods from the U.S.
Marshall Plan
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…it is a business plan plus…plus political direction, plus diplomatic guidance…The Marshall Plan means work, and you will be one of the workers….”

When Albanus Phillips, the President of Phillips Packing Company in Cambridge, Maryland, sent a letter to John Steelman on April 13, 1948, U.S. President Harry Truman’s Chief of Staff, asking if his canning company could participate in the European Recovery Act, the law was only 10 days old.  Commonly known as the Marshall Plan after Secretary of State George C. Marshall, who had argued for its purpose, the initiative aimed to assist European nations in recovering from the economic damage wrought from World War II, and the immediate need was for food and fuel.

American businessmen, like Phillips, were quick to jump at the chance to capitalize on exporting American-made An employee fills can with tomato juice at Phillips Packing Co.products to war-torn Europe.  In appealing his case, Phillips offered “several million cans” of peas, “strictly Fancy quality Tomato Juice,” and various offerings of condensed soups.  Employing 10,000, the Phillips Packing Company operated at full-steam during the war feeding hungry U.S. GI’s, and its President realized that the company’s war-time  production far outweighed domestic demand.  Phillips was cautious to advise that the sale of these products would not hurt the U.S. food economy, as the contents had already been packaged.  He also acknowledged that the contents were not as high in calories as “grains and thus the amount of calories per dollar would not be as great,” but would be perfect for the “diet of children as well as of older people.”

 Steelman replied promptly 7 days later, advising Phillips that official channels had been set in place in the form of the Economic Cooperation Administration’s Food Division, and directed him to outline a proposal for the agency’s review.  The U.S. government was soon flooded with similar requests, particularly after the May 1948 publication of “How To Do Business Under the Marshall Plan,” in the well-respected financial forecasting Kiplinger Magazine, giving its readers a thorough review on how to “make the stuff, sell the stuff, ship the stuff.”

A young Dutch farm boy learns to operate a combine while visiting the U.S.

The Marshall Plan marked a profound shift in American foreign policy objectives.  Instead of providing humanitarian aid after a war or crisis and withdrawing, policy makers used the strength and stability of the American market and currency economy to ensure that the nations receiving aid would use it not only to recover, but to become self-sufficient and reliable allies of the United States.  As socialist and communist political ideologies spread through much of Europe, the Plan’s undergirding democratic principle of free markets and free trade strongly countered fledgling anti-democratic political groups. American businessmen took an active part in the Plan’s implementation, serving on committees and helping to develop economic roadmaps; CEOs from Studebaker Automobile, General Foods, Coca-Cola, Scott Paper, Quaker Oats, General Electric, and Goldman Sachs participated. To prevent price inflation for Americans at home, these committees carefully monitored commodities and the dollar-to-recipient country currency exchange.  American suppliers were paid in U.S. dollars credited to a fund the countries paid back to the U.S. government.

The U.S. contributed $13.3 billion to 16 European countries over four years and the stabilizing effect was seen within weeks. The majority of economic development aid came in the form of food, fuel, machinery, and medicine, and the American economy, in turn, flourished–also shepherding multilateral relationships such as NATO and the EU.  The model of development aid, as a tool of foreign policy, was now firmly established. No longer would assistance be provided as a humanitarian gift; aid to allies and developing nations is considered a strategic investment for the security of the American people.

Sources Consulted:

“How to do Business Under the Marshall Plan,” Kiplinger Magazine (Washington, DC), Vol. 2, No. 5, May 1948

“Maryland History:  The Phillips Packing and Seafood Company,” online article, 25 June 2017, http://www.preservationmaryland.org/maryland-history-the-phillips-packing-and-seafood-company/

Truman Library, Official File 426

How to do Business Under the Marshall Plan,” Kiplinger Magazine (Washington, DC), Vol. 2, No. 5, May 1948

Amy C. Garrett, “”Helping Europe Help Itself:  The Marshall Plan,” The Foreign Service Journal, January/February 2018).

a scene of a Japanese embassy and diplomats
First Japanese Embassy
First Japanese Embassy 1024 651

Promoting Free and Transparent Trade

To have brought this secluded Empire, into the intercourse of nations…is an achievement which may justly be ranked, among the greatest events of the age…” Presentation letter from the New York Chamber of Commerce to Commodore Perry

Long associated with events of substantial achievement in America, in 1855 a presentation gift of silver was made to U.S.

Photograph of U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry

U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry

Commodore Matthew C. Perry from the Chamber of Commerce and Merchant Exchange in New York City.  The large silver dinner service cost over $6,000 to manufacture, and its inscription tells a tale of the link between American prosperity and diplomacy.  The appreciative merchants wished to acknowledge Perry’s “service which he has rendered to America and to the world by his able and successful negotiation of the treaty with Japan.” Merchants in Boston expressed similar sentiments, presenting Perry and members of his expedition with gold and silver medals, and the Rhode Island General Assembly gave Perry a silver tray.  The northeastern maritime trading industry stood to profit immensely from its new Asian trading partner as well as securing safety for American whalers, for then-President Millard Fillmore had Commodore Perry present a letter to the Japanese emperor asking that shipwrecked sailors be “treated with kindness and their property protected” until they could be retrieved.

By 1860, a general commercial treaty–opening up several Japanese ports to American trade–had been negotiated, and the first Japanese “Embassy,” of 77 headed by Tokugawa shogunates Ambassador Shimmi Masaoki and Vice-Ambassador Muragaki Norimasa, arrived in Washington, DC on May 14. Met by 5000 spectators, their mission and purpose was to present the treaty to Secretary of State Lewis Cass for official ratification, meet with President James Buchanan, and their government had instructed them to observe economic conditions and the strength and size of the navy.

A photograph of one of the commemorative medals presented to President Buchanan by the first diplomats from Japan.The diplomats stayed at the Willard Hotel, and were toasted throughout the city.  They visited the State Department, Patent Office, the Smithsonian, the Navy Shipyard, hospitals, churches, the printing office, and attended a session of Congress–the debates on the floor reminding them, as one wrote, of a “fishmarket.” In his detailed travel diary, Vice-Ambassador Muragaki recounted that while the diplomats were treated with great respect, they marveled over the lack of formality in speech and dress at official government meetings.  When they asked Secretary Cass about proper protocol and etiquette for meeting with President Buchanan, they were astonished to hear that “no such thing existed at the President’s court, and that we might do as we pleased.”  Entertained lavishly, they were often put into embarrassing positions at dinners, when they were unable to eat dishes heavy in meat, dairy, and rice cooked in butter and sugar. “Our stomachs refuse to accept it,” Muragaki wrote. They were particularly impressed with American machinery and manufacturing, and believed the practices could be adopted in their home country.

Upon leaving Washington on June 5, the diplomats paid a final call to Buchanan at the Executive Mansion and presented silk screens, swords, and porcelains to the President, who explained that these gifts were not made to him alone, but the American people.  In return, Cass handed the diplomats gold, silver, and copper medals struck with a likeness of Buchanan on one side, the other reading, “In Commemoration of the First Embassy from Japan to the United States 1860.” After visiting Philadelphia and New York, the diplomats left for Japan, hopeful the commerce treaty and newly established relationship would benefit both nations.  The treaty remained in effect for the next 40 years.

Sources Consulted:

The First Japanese Embassy to the United States of America, (Tokyo:  The America-Japan Society, 1928)

A USAID worker and his search and rescue dog search the rubble for victims of the earthquake.
“What do you need?” Natural Disaster Assistance in Nepal
“What do you need?” Natural Disaster Assistance in Nepal 1024 576

What do you need?”

A map shows the locations of the two earthquakes that left Nepal in need of international assistance.

Diplomacy takes many forms, including humanitarian actions to provide life’s essentials after a disaster.

A country that has suffered a major setback due to a disaster will more likely return to a path of peace and prosperity when its citizens have food, water, housing, and health care.  Diplomats and development specialists are on the ground responding to disasters worldwide.

Los Angeles County Fire Department team members work together to rescue victims from a partially collapsed building.

In this May 12, 2015 photo, Los Angeles County Fire Department urban search and rescue team memebrs work to recover survivors from a four-story building that collapsed in the earthquake in Singati, a mountain village in Nepal. (Kashish Das/USAID/via AP)

This yellow fire helmet represents an important life-saving partnership between the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Los Angeles County Fire Department (LACoFD). LACoFD’s Urban Search and Rescue Team serves with distinction as one of two departments in the U.S. trained and authorized to deploy with USAID disaster response teams to international crises. Notably, they assist with the search for and rescue of survivors after powerful earthquakes, such as in Nepal in 2015 and Mexico in 2017. The team also provides training and equipment for local first responders.

Captain Andrew Olvera of the LA County Fire Department and USAR, was deployed to Nepal after the April 25, 2015 catastrophic earthquake and participated in the 4 hour dramatic rescue of Pemba Lama as pictured above.

Olvera stated that, while time was of the essence, the American teams did not arrive in Nepal barking orders to the Nepalese search and rescue, but offered their assistance.  They understood that the Nepalese were in charge, and built their trust with them incrementally. Olvera’s team was assigned to General Bharati, asking him at their first meeting, “What do you need?”  General Bharati needed searchlights, which Olvera provided.  “What else do you need?” became Olvera’s refrain to the General.  By April 30, two days after the American units from Fairfax County, VA, and LA had arrived, Olvera had established a solid working relationship with the Nepalese units.  That morning, Olvera and the coordinated teams were searching a pile of concrete, when men came running from across the street. Over the roar of the claw excavator engine they had been using to sift through the rubble of Kathmandu’s Hilton Hotel, they heard a voice crying for help.  Five days after the earthquake struck, was it possible they found a survivor?

Bharati’s and Olvera’s teams rushed to the site.  Using listening devices, they clearly heard desperate pleas.  In a joint effort, the Nepalese and Americans began to painstakingly remove the pieces of concrete by hand–gently, as the risk of collapse was imminent.  After a couple of hours, the crews uncovered a buried motorcycle. They realized that whomever was trapped was mixed with the remains of the parking garage.  “Do you have metal cutters?” General Bharati asked Olvera. “Absolutely,” he responded, and piece by piece they removed the motorcycle, shoring up the area with wooden planks as they continued.  After a total of 4 hours, 15-year-old Pemba Lama was rescued as throngs of cheering Nepalese looked on. Despite being severely dehydrated, the teenager was unharmed, having been trapped in a pocket.  His parents were in an upper floor of the hotel when the earthquake hit, and they had survived–despairing of seeing their son alive again. USAR paramedics quickly hooked Pemba to IV fluids and the teams carried him to a waiting ambulance.  He was soon reunited with his parents.

The whole operation was dangerous, but it’s risk versus gain.  To save a human life, we’ll risk almost everything.”


  • 5.3 Rescue of Pemba
  • 5.3 Olvera with General
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Sources Consulted:

LA Firefighters Save Lives In Nepal



A Century of Service – US Diplomatic Courier Services turns 100
A Century of Service – US Diplomatic Courier Services turns 100 150 150

The United States Diplomacy Center is honored to celebrate the centennial anniversary of the Diplomatic Courier Service with a new exhibit, “100 Years of Diplomatic Couriers—None Swifter than These,” on display from Oct 31, 2018 through February 3, 2019.

In 1918, General John J. “Black Jack” Pershing authorized U.S. Army Major Amos J. Peaslee to organize a wartime courier service to expedite mail between the U.S. embassy in Paris and Washington. General Peaslee’s “Silver Greyhounds,” denoted by the greyhound patch on their uniforms, were formally assigned that same year to the U.S. Department of State. The Silver greyhounds became the first U.S. organization dedicated to transport of diplomatic pouches and thus the Diplomatic Courier Service (DCS) was born.

Today, diplomatic couriers spend tens of thousands of hours annually delivering tens of millions of pounds of classified material by air, sea, and land to more than 275 U.S. diplomatic missions around the world. The famous orange pouches have been featured in Hollywood movies and can range from confidential documents to hi-tech devices or even construction equipment.

The exhibits features items used throughout the history of the DCS and how that mission has evolved over the years to keep ahead of evolving threats of espionage, terror, and even bad weather.  Also on display are bugging devices, such as the one found in the Great Seal of the United States at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow which resulted in a shift in the diplomatic courier mission—from carrying confidential messages, to also transporting construction and other materials for secure areas in U.S. embassies. 

Items on display were provided by the Bureau of Diplomatic Security, working in collaboration with the US Diplomacy Center. The exhibit represents the State Department’s commitment to highlight the efforts and mission of the Diplomatic Courier Service, whose essential work supports and ensures the safety and integrity of employees and resources in US missions all over the World.

For more information on the the Courier Service and the Bureau of Diplomatic Security:


Celebrating 20 Years of U.S.-Slovenian Collaboration on Humanitarian Demining Efforts
Celebrating 20 Years of U.S.-Slovenian Collaboration on Humanitarian Demining Efforts 150 150

On September 28th, the Embassy of Slovenia and the Diplomacy Center celebrated 20 years of American support for the Slovenian government-led nonprofit organization ITF Enhancing Human Security (ITF). ITF is dedicated to reducing threats from landmines and other explosive remnants of war and to facilitating safety and long-term development in conflict-affected communities.

President Borut Pahor of Slovenia, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs Elisabeth Millard gave remarks followed by a reception. The event was accompanied by a photo exhibit of ITF’s work around the world displayed in the Diplomacy Center from September 24 through October 1.

ITF was formed in 1998 to help Bosnia and Herzegovina implement the Dayton Peace Agreement.  Former U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and former Slovenian Foreign Minister Boris Frlec agreed to its establishment as a key component of the peace settlement, placing the war torn region on the road to recovery by clearing landmines and assisting landmine survivors in the wake of the 1992-1995 Bosnian War.

With the early support of the United States, ITF has grown over the past 20 years to operate in 31 countries around the world, clearing of more than 139 million square meters of mine-affected land, protecting civilians in fragile and recovering states, and opening a path to stability and prosperity.

Women present their project at ImpactHack
ImpactHack 2018
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Visualizing Diplomacy, Development, and the Environment

On September 21 and 22, 2018, the United States Diplomacy Center and World Resources Institute partnered to host ImpactHack, a data visualization hackathon in Washington D.C. Sixteen teams competed to demonstrate diplomacy’s impact, from local state economies to global issues, using their coding and design skills. Amazon Web Services was the Title Sponsor and generously donated their time, technology, and expertise to managing the hackathon. Promising projects from this hackathon will be used to develop Diplomacy Center exhibit prototypes.

Four winners stand after award

Taylor Funk, Brianna McGowan, Chaudhry Talha and Alex Cohen stand with Diplomacy Center host Kelsey Cvach after winning first place for their project My State, My State Department. “I would love to be involved in future citizen diplomacy. I always wanted to be a diplomat and even wanted to join the foreign service,” said Alex Cohen.

My State, My State Department

The winning project, My State, My State Department, was created by Alex Cohen, Taylor Funk, Brianna McGowan, and Chaudhry Talha. The team created an interactive map and game that connects the work of American diplomacy with its impact on local communities across the U.S. The team used a United States map to allow users to explore the benefits of real diplomatic negotiations to regional U.S. interests, and to test their own skills in diplomacy. The project even allowed users to tweet their results.

McGowen describes, “After about two hours of brainstorming, my team knew we wanted to gamify state by state diplomacy and make it fun to interact with, learning not only the significance of diplomacy, but also increasing knowledge on the importance of the State Department and the impressive work they do.”

The My State, My State Department team is all the more remarkable because they had just met each other at the opening event. They are excited about the possibility that their project could be used in the future Diplomacy Center museum.

Data Ambassadors
Map with Embassies appearing over time

An interactive timeline of diplomacy data visualization app that helps visitors to understand American diplomacy and history events through time. User may scroll the interactive globe around and click the embassy for more information. User may also press a play button to animate the embassy establishment and closure chronologically. The app also highlights major history events in the animation.

The second place project, Data Ambassadors, demonstrated America’s diplomatic growth over time through an interactive map. The map included the context of historical events and a clickable timeline spanning the birth of the United States to current day. This team, consisting of Aaron Corso, Jeff Hale, Jessica Martin, and Chia-Hua Peng, also met at the opening event. Jessica plans to work with the Diplomacy Center to continue building out the project. She reports: “I am working on polishing it and adding final features. This isn’t something that has been done before.”

Another teammate, Aaron Corso, notes “Tech and data visualizations in particular, democratize diplomacy. Living in the DC area makes you more acutely aware of the activities of diplomats, but for someone living in the midwest, they may not have the constant exposure or awareness. The projects at this hackathon showed great promise in how we can raise awareness of how American diplomacy affects everyone by putting you in the driver’s seat.”

Global Movement

The third place project, Global Movement, addressed the factors that may relate to refugee rates, including a country’s relative freedom. This high school team, including Kashyap Murali, Aditya Patil, Krishnan Ram, and Jinal Shah, had driven down from New Jersey to participate in the hackathon after winning a travel sponsorship for their diplomatic relationship simulator in another hackathon in May. Several intend to apply for internships at the State Department in the future.

Special Prize: Most likely to be Published

Alice Feng won the special category award, “Most likely to be Published” with her project. She used data and graphics to tell an immersive story of the Paris Agreement, which was a landmark in terms of how many countries signed on in a short time. She used data visualizations show how the rapid adoption of the Paris Agreement stands out relative to other agreements, and then moved on to explore what impact this agreement will have, if any, on trying to stop the forces of climate change.

“I feel technology can play an important role in American diplomacy, whether by using it to educate citizens about our diplomatic efforts or as a way for us to learn more about and build stronger relationships with other cultures. I hope to participate in more opportunities to use data visualization to tell stories about the impact of international collaboration,” Alice Feng said.

Women present their project at ImpactHack

About ImpactHack

ImpactHack took place over the course of forty hours in two locations. The kickoff launched at the Diplomacy Center with remarks from Mary Kane, the Diplomacy Center’s director, Janet Ranganathan, World Resources Institute’s VP of Climate and Research, and Mark Smith of the hackathon’s Title Sponsor, Amazon Web Services. Participants met mentors, formed groups and began projects. After a full day of guided designing, coding, and testing at World Resources Institute, groups presented their projects. While judges made final decision, Joe Dooley, policy manager at Google, spoke about the importance of open data and higher education in STEM. The $3,000 in prizes were announced and projects published for continued development.

The United States Diplomacy Center will be the first museum and education center to tell the story of the history, practice, and challenges of American diplomacy. Through exhibitions and programs, the Center will inspire the American public to discover diplomacy and how it impacts their lives every day.

The World Resources Institute is a global research organization that spans more than 60 countries. Their more than 700 experts and staff work closely with leaders to turn big ideas into action to sustain Earth’s natural resources—the foundation of economic opportunity and human well-being.

Subscribe to learn about our upcoming programs or check out our other past events.

These are a few objects of condolence sent from around the world including South Africa and Australia.
Honoring the Victims of September 11, 2001
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On September 10, Secretary Pompeo visited the U.S. Diplomacy Center’s September 11 exhibit remembering the lives that were taken during the terrorist attacks and the survivors and first responders with lasting injuries or health complications. The exhibit features displays of condolence material from its collection that represents the outpouring of support felt worldwide after the attacks. The anniversary of September 11, 2001, also honors the heroes who rushed into the darkness to save lives and commemorates the contributions and duties of all public servants who keep America safe. The display is up through Friday, September 14, in the Diplomacy Center pavilion for internal staff and official visitors.

After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, U.S. embassies and consulates received condolence material such as flowers, candles, personal notes, drawings, and trinkets of all types to let U.S. citizens know that they were not alone in their pain. Many of these items were shipped to the Department of State in Washington, and now are included in the collections of the Diplomacy Center. This condolence material represents an unwavering support for Americans in their time of need and a global repudiation of terrorism.

Specific examples from the collection include:

  • Students at Norwood School, Johannesburg, South Africa, sent a spiral bound booklet of colorful drawings and encouraging notes to the U.S. consulate.
  • Firefighters from the New South Wales Rural Fire Service offered a helmet with heartfelt inscriptions to the U.S. consulate in Sydney, Australia.
  • Schoolchildren in Japan created extensive chains of origami swans as symbols of peace.
  • A U.S. embassy is a powerful symbol. The building and the dedicated people who work there represent American values and a commitment to the rule of law.
  • Embassies are often targets as terrorists unsuccessfully attempt to silence our calls for freedom or halt the work of our nation, as we saw 3 years earlier on August 7, 1998, in Kenya and Tanzania.
  • Embassies are also places to mourn where citizens worldwide gather there to show respect and solidarity with the American people in the face of tragedy, and play a part in national and international healing.
Global Issues
Global Issues 150 150

What do a fire helmet, a missile launcher, and a Carnival costume have to do with diplomacy?

Each of these items represents a global issue that shapes the practice of diplomacy today. U.S. diplomats serve our nation by securing peace, increasing prosperity, promoting democracy, and sustaining development efforts worldwide, benefiting Americans at home. In practice, their efforts take many forms, involve many people, and can be surprising.

This yellow fire helmet represents an important life-saving partnership between the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Los Angeles County Fire Department (LACoFD). LACoFD’s Urban Search and Rescue Team serves with distinction as one of two departments in the U.S. trained and authorized to deploy with USAID disaster response teams to international crises. Notably, they assist with the search and rescue of survivors after powerful earthquakes, such as in Nepal in 2015 and Mexico in 2017. The team also provides training and equipment for local first responders. By providing emergency life-saving assistance, the United States helps these nations back to a path to recovery and stability.

This inert SA7 model of a Man Portable Air Defense System (MANPADS) is an example of a type of conventional weapon removed under programs funded by the U.S. Department of State. These programs support foreign governments’ efforts to remove, secure, and/or destroy these weapons that threaten the health and security of their citizens. These efforts counter the illicit proliferation and use of MANPADS. In the hands of terrorists, criminals, or other non-state actors, MANPADS pose a serious threat to commercial and military aircraft around the world.

In 2017, U.S. Consulate General Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, invited dancer and Paralympian Amy Purdy to represent the U.S. as a cultural envoy during the annual Carnival celebrations. Amy is a double amputee who danced in the opening of the Paralympics, won a snowboarding bronze in 2014, was a runner up in Dancing with the Stars, and is a well-respected motivational speaker. She participated in the U.S. Consulate General Rio’s partnership with the samba school Unidos da Tijuca. Amy promoted the shared U.S.-Brazilian musical heritage and messages focused on disability rights and women’s empowerment. Amy’s rhinestone studded costume was the first-ever designed for a double-amputee athlete/dancer during Carnival.

The Department of State sends American arts professionals, known as cultural envoys, around the world to U.S. embassies and consulates to perform or run workshops in their areas of expertise — including dance, drama, visual art, poetry, literature, film, and more.

#AskACurator 150 150

Ever wonder what kind objects we use to tell the story of American diplomacy at the U.S. Diplomacy Center?

Don’t wonder, ask our curator! For the first time in our museum’s history, we’ll be answering your questions about our collection. Between 9:00 AM – 4:30 PM EDT on September 12, 2018, tweet us questions about the only museum collection dedicated to telling the story of American diplomacy. Our Directory Mary Kane, Associate Curator Kathryn Speckart, and Public Historian Dr. Alison Mann will be on hand to answer your questions. Initiated on Twitter in 2010, Ask a Curator Day is a worldwide Q&A that now has over 1,500 participating museums from 58 countries, is taking place. Tweet us at @DiplomacyCenter and use the #AskaCurator to participate! Or dive in right away!

Exhibit Testing
Exhibit Testing 150 150

On July 31, 2018, the United States Diplomacy Center made its second visit to the National Museum of American History’s Spark!Lab to test content for its future exhibits. Museum visitors viewed four historical and current stories of American diplomacy and were invited to participate in a word association exercise. Over 500 visitors walked through exhibit and almost 250 surveys were taken. Of note:

  • Over 95% of visitors indicated foreign initiatives of development, democracy, and security are very important to the United States’ domestic economy and security.
  • There was strong belief that promoting free speech in other countries is important to the United States interest.
  • A strong majority of participants saw diplomacy as “very important” to their home state. However, a handful of visitors did not see a connection between diplomacy and the prosperity of their  home states. Understood in conjunction with the other data, this indicates visitors feel American diplomacy is important to the nation has a whole but less so to the economy of his or her particular region.
  • Visitors had some knowledge of current events related to State Department, good understanding of Consular Affairs, and the Department’s range of impact, but were confused in how it relates to military operations.

These strong emotional responses are a positive sign for the enthusiasm of our core themes and interest in American diplomacy and its impact. The exhibits that we tested are currently being developed in partnership with Smithsonian. The exhibit is scheduled to be installed in the United States Diplomacy Center Pavilion in late 2019.

See testing of Faces of Diplomacy exhibit.